Medieval & Renaissance
During the Middle Ages the phoenix rose from its ashes to be reborn, dangerous dragons battled elephants to the death, and the pelican tore out its own breast to feed its young with its life’s blood – in bestiaries, that is.
The impotence trials of pre-revolutionary France sound a bit like a political joke. France had mostly squelched the ability for couples to divorce, and it was in this wake that the impotence trials arose.
Murky, elusive and undefined, the religion of the pre-Christian Vikings has long been subject to debate. Contemporary texts of their spiritual worship do not survive, and the later records that do survive stem from Christian authors. Thus, they are tainted with a Christian worldview and anti-pagan opinions. The magic of the Vikings, however, is somewhat a secondary field of interest.
Grace O'Malley was Queen of Umaill, chieftain of the O Maille clan, a rebel, seafarer, and fearless leader, who challenged the turbulent politics of 16th century England and Ireland.
Dogs have been used as powerful weapons of war for at least the last 3,000 years. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Sarmatians, Britons, and Romans are all known to have used dogs in combat, or for scouts, sentries, trackers, or executioners. But the Spanish conquistadors employed war dogs on a scale that had rarely been seen before, and with devastating effect.
On a windswept hilltop located six miles from Şanlıurfa– known in ancient times as Edessa – an American team, in collaboration with Istanbul University, carried out a survey in the early 1960s. They were examining sites across south-east Turkey to investigate the transition from hunting and gathering to the beginnings of farming.
Fresh, dried, pickled, preserved, crystallized, candied, powdered, or ground, ginger is used in many forms. In Ayurvedic traditions, it is used for its taste (rasa), energy (virya), and post-digestive effects (vipāka). But most importantly, its potent medicinal properties have earned it the name vishwabheshaja, “the universal medicine”.
This recipe is taken from ‘Le Ménagier de Paris’ (The Good Wife’s Guide), a guidebook from 1393 discussing the “proper behavior” for a woman in her marriage and while running a household. The text is not only a cookbook; it also includes advice from a fictional elderly husband telling his younger wife how to go about life in the garden, kitchen, and bedroom.